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TITLE (The title should be clear, brief, and informative. Abbreviations and formulas should be avoided. No place or year is included)
Author* (Authors' identity should be written entirely by giving name, institution, and email address for correspondence author)
*Department, University, City, Country
* author email
The abstract should be written briefly and factually in English. The abstract contains a clear elaboration of research purpose, result, and conclusion. The abstract should be written separately from the article. Reference should not be written in the abstract, but if it is indispensable, the authors' name and publication year should be cited. The nonstandard abbreviation should be avoided, but if it is indispensable, the full name should be specified in its initial mention.
Keywords– Keywords consist of 3-5 words or phrases.
The introduction contains the purpose of article/research that is formulated and presented by an adequate introduction and avoids detail references and research result presentations. The research urgency, supporting facts, and data must be included. A preliminary research result should be explained as the basis of the research. Before mentioning the objective/s, a gap analysis must be elucidated. The gap analysis states the difference/s between the research and other previous studies. At this point, the novelty will be apparent. The research stance must be included, whether it corrects, debates, or support the previous research.
The method used should be accompanied by references; the relevant modification should be explained. The procedure and data analysis technique should be emphasized in a literature review article. The stages and analysis of the research must be explained in detail.
- Result and Discussion
The results and discussion should be presented in the same part, clearly and briefly. The discussion part should contain the benefit of the research result, not the repeat result part. The results and discussion part can be written in the same part to avoid the extensive quotation. Tables or graphs must present different results. The results of data analysis must be reliable in answering research problems. References to the discussion should not repeat the references in the introduction. Comparisons to the findings of previous studies must be included.
The conclusion of the research is presented briefly, narrative, non-bulleted, and conceptual. The research impact must be stated.
This section is not mandatory, but may be added if there are patents resulting from the work reported in this manuscript.
Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at www.mdpi.com/xxx/s1, Figure S1: title, Table S1: title, Video S1: title.
Author Contributions: For research articles with several authors, a short paragraph specifying their individual contributions must be provided. The following statements should be used “Conceptualization, X.X. and Y.Y.; methodology, X.X.; software, X.X.; validation, X.X., Y.Y. and Z.Z.; formal analysis, X.X.; investigation, X.X.; resources, X.X.; data curation, X.X.; writing—original draft preparation, X.X.; writing—review and editing, X.X.; visualization, X.X.; supervision, X.X.; project administration, X.X.; funding acquisition, Y.Y. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.”, please turn to the CRediT taxonomy for the term explanation. Authorship must be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work reported.
Funding: Please add: “This research received no external funding” or “This research was funded by NAME OF FUNDER, grant number XXX” and “The APC was funded by XXX”. Check carefully that the details given are accurate and use the standard spelling of funding agency names at https://search.crossref.org/funding, any errors may affect your future funding.
Acknowledgments: In this section you can acknowledge any support given which is not covered by the author contribution or funding sections. This may include administrative and technical support, or donations in kind (e.g., materials used for experiments).
Declaration of Conflicting Interests: Declare conflicts of interest or state “The authors declare no conflict of interest.” Authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or interest that may be perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of reported research results. Any role of the funders in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results must be declared in this section. If there is no role, please state “The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results”.
The appendix is an optional section that can contain details and data supplemental to the main text. For example, explanations of experimental details that would disrupt the flow of the main text, but nonetheless remain crucial to understanding and reproducing the research shown; figures of replicates for experiments of which representative data is shown in the main text can be added here if brief, or as Supplementary data. Mathematical proofs of results not central to the paper can be added as an appendix.
All appendix sections must be cited in the main text. In the appendixes, Figures, Tables, etc. should be labeled starting with ‘A’, e.g., Figure A1, Figure A2, etc.
Reference in the article should cite the last name and year. If citing from some authors, it should be ordered based on the most recent reference. If citing from the article written by two authors, then all authors' names should be cited. Meanwhile, if citing from the article written by three or more authors, then it is cited by writing the first author's name followed by et al. Citation should be written in reference part. Every cited reference should be written completely in the reference part. An unpublished reference is not suggested to be cited in the article. References should be written according to the APA style. This journal requires 80% of the reference cited from the national and international journals.
Arslan, A. (2014).Transition between Open and Guided Inquiry Instruction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 141, 407-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.05.071
Benli, E., Sarikaya, M. (2012). The Investigation of the Effect of Problem Based Learning to the Academic Achievement and the Permanence of Knowledge of Prospective Science Teacher: The Problem of the Boiler Stone, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 4317-4322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.247
Chang, H., Wang, N., Ko, W. Yu, Y., Lin,, L., Tsai, L. (2017). The effectiveness of clinical problem-based learning model of medico-jurisprudence education on general law knowledge for Obstetrics/Gynecological interns. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 56 (3), 325-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.04.011
Howell, J. B., Saye, J. W. (2018). Integrating theory and practice: Factors shaping elementary teachers? interpretation of an inquiry model for teaching social studies. The Journal of Social Studies Research, 42 (2), 201-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssr.2017.04.003
Jiang, Y., Clarke-Midura, J., Keller, B., Baker, R. S., Paquette, L., Ocumpaugh, J. (2018). Note-taking and science inquiry in an open-ended learning environment. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 55, 12-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.08.004
Kant, J. M., Scheiter, K., Oschatz K. (2017). How to sequence video modeling examples and inquiry tasks to foster scientific reasoning. Learning and Instruction, 52, 46-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.04.005
Liu, L., Du, X., Zhang, Z., Zhou, J. (2019). Effect of problem-based learning in pharmacology education: A meta-analysis. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 60, 43-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2018.11.004
McNew-Birren, J., Kieboom, L. A. v. d. (2017). Exploring the development of core teaching practices in the context of inquiry-based science instruction: An interpretive case study. Teaching and Teacher Education, 66, 74-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.04.001.
Morgado, S., Leite, L. (2013). Science and Geography Teachers’ Conceptions Regarding Problem-based Learning Related Concepts. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 106, 2343-2347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.268
Nicholls, J. (2014). Teaching and evaluation of basic pathological sciences in a generation of problem based learning.Pathology, 46 (2), S32. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.PAT.0000454193.12666.21
Roller, M. C., Zori, S. (2017). The impact of instituting Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in a fundamental nursing course. Nurse Education Today, 50, 72-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.12.003
Ruiz-Gallardo, J., Castaño, S., Gómez-Alday, J.J., Valdés, A. (2011). Assessing student workload in Problem Based Learning: Relationships among teaching method, student workload and achievement. A case study in Natural Sciences. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27 (3), 619-627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.11.001
Provisions on Writing Tables and Figures
- Tables and figures must be following the paper's informative needs;
- A caption must accompany each table, picture, and graphic. The table’s caption is located at the top of the table, while for pictures and graphics the caption is placed at the bottom;
- The author is encouraged to provide narrative reviews related to the tables or figures to be presented along with the tables or figures presented;
- Images must have an excellent resolution, be clear and meaningful, without graphic titles;
- Tables must contain a minimum of two rows of data and no unit repetition;
- Tables only use lines at the top and bottom of the table head and cover at the end of the data;
- Tables must be presented in its entirety, not clipped to another page;
- If there are two tables whose contents are interrelated, they can be placed close together;
- Extensive tables and figures/graphs may be placed in one column of text if needed
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